早稲田過去問解説 理工学部 英語 2019 基幹・先進・創造

[2] Multiple intelligences (MI) theory, on the other hand, pluralizes the traditional concept. An intelligence is a computational capacity - a capacity to process a certain kind of information - that originates in human biology and human psychology. Humans have certain kinds of intelligences, whereas rats, birds, and computers foreground other kinds of computational capacities. An intelligence entails the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting or community. The problem-solving skill allows one to approach a situation in which a goal is to be obtained and to locate the appropriate route to that goal. The creation of a cultural ( A ) allows one to capture and transmit knowledge or to express one's conclusions, beliefs, or feelings. The problems to be solved range from creating an end for a story to anticipating a winning move in chess to repairing a quilt. Products range from scientific theories to musical compositions to successful political campaigns.

Text I, Question 2
Which of the following words fits in blank A?
a. problem    b. product   c. conclusion   d. computational

[2] 第4文
intelligence は以下の2つを entail している。
solve problems: 問題を解く
fashion products: ものを作る
ここでの fashion は動詞で,意味は make と近い。

fashion: 名詞,動詞
fashionable: 形容詞
fashionably: 副詞

そして,problems と products について交互に説明が行われる。

The problem-solving skill allows one to approach ...
The creation of a cultural ( A ) allows one to capture ...

The problems range from creating ... to anticipating ...
Products range from scientific theories to musical compositions ...

このように見れば,(A) に product が入るのは明らかである。

solve problems
⇒ problem ... allows one to ...
⇒ problems range from ... to ...

fashion products
⇒ product ... allows one to ...
⇒ products range from ... to ...

早稲田国際教養学部 AO入試 2018年度 II. Europe is Bigger than Brexit

早稲田国際教養学部 AO入試 過去問題 2018年度
II. Europe is Bigger than Brexit


It seems symbolic that Helmut Kohl, the man who oversaw the reunification of Germany, should die on the eve of negotiations leading to Britain's withdrawal from the European Union (EU). So long a giant on the European stage, Kohl made the best of the extraordinary circumstances and public mood that followed the collapse of communism.

題材は The Guardian の2017年6月18日の記事である。Helmut Kohlはこの2日前の6月16日に亡くなっている。
Helmut Kohlは1982~1998年にドイツの首相を務めた人物であるが,在任期間中の1990年10月にドイツの再統一 (the reunification of Germany) を実現させた。
イギリスは2016年に国民投票でEU離脱を選択し,2017年3月29日にEUから正式に離脱するための手続きを開始(EU条約第50条の発動),イギリスのEU離脱 (Brexit) の交渉がこれから始まろうという時期 (on the eve of negotiations) にHelmut Kohlが亡くなった。
「統一の方向」と「離脱の方向」を対比させ,それに連動するかのような Helmut Kohl の逝去を象徴的 (symbolic) としている。

should die という表現に違和感を覚えた人もいるかもしれない。これは主観的判断を述べる文の that 節の中で使われる should である。
It is symbolic that S should do ...

ドイツの再統一は,ソビエト連邦を代表とする共産主義の崩壊 (the collapse of communism) の中での出来事であった。Helmut Kohlは当時の異常な環境 (the extraordinary circumstances) と社会のムード (public mood) を利用した。

センター本試験 英語 2017年度 第5問 解説 猫になっちゃった!



With a big yawn I woke up.

What a fresh morning!

I felt very sharp, much sharper than usual.

I was able to hear the singing of birds more clearly than ever before.

I noticed the smell of coffee coming up from downstairs.

I stretched out my arms in front of myself and raised my back; it felt so good.

I sat up straight, licked my hand, and started to clean my face with it....

Huh? ... Something was strange.

Why was I licking my hand with my tongue?

Why was my body covered with fur?

I tried to say something, but the sound that came out of my mouth was ... "Meow."

It was certainly my bedroom that I was in.

It was certainly my bed that I was sitting on.

Everything was as usual except that ... I seemed to have changed in to a different creature.

I was so surprised that I couldn't move.

I couldn't do anything.

I wondered - would I have to spend the rest of my life as an animal?

I began to feel afraid.... But after a few moments those feelings passed.

So, with a wave of my tail, I started to explore my surroundings.

A cat's mind is said to be changeable like that.

As I went down the stairs, the smell of coffee grew stronger and I could tell what was for breakfast.

Maybe the senses of a cat are sharper than those of a human.

When I got to the dining room, what I saw almost stopped my heart.

It was me! The human I was sitting at the dining table! I couldn't take my eyes off myself.
(注意:イタリック体の I, my, me, myself は人間のYujiを指している。)

The human I was absorbed in a smartphone, maybe writing responses to friends' messages or playing an online game.

Bending my head down toward the phone, I was sitting with rounded shoulders and a curved back.

I looked very uncomfortable.

sometimes took a little bite of toast, but it appeared that I was not noticing any taste in my mouth.


Actually, the taste of toast in my memory was vague.

I couldn't remember what else had been served for breakfast recently, either.

The human I was just mindlessly putting in my mouth anything that was on the plate while handling the phone.

I was so focused on the test messages or games that I took little interest in what was happening around me.

In fact, my face had no expression on it at all.

"Yuji, you never study these days. Are you ready for your final exams? You're making me a little bit worried," said Mom.

"Mmm," said I. A sign of frustration briefly appeared on my face, but it disappeared in an instant.

My face was again as expressionless as it had been before.

"I don't like this guy," I thought. But this guy was me. I couldn't deny it. For the first time, I realized how I really looked to other people.

Then, as I started to leave the table, our eyes met. "Wow! Mom, look! There's a cat in the dining room!"

I didn't know why, but I was running. I felt I had to escape.

Running up the stairs, I found the window in my room was open.
I jumped. I had a strange feeling.

The world suddenly seemed to have shifted.

I felt my body falling down and ....


I was awake, lying on the floor of my room.

I slowly sat up and looked around.

Everything looked like it usually did.

I looked at my hands.

I was relieved to see they were no longer covered with fur.

I stood up and, with a yawn, extended my arms above my head to stretch my back.

Without thinking, as was my usual habit in the morning, I started to walk to my desk where my smartphone had completed charging and ... I stopped.

After pausing for a moment, I turned around and went downstairs for breakfast.


問1 When Yuji realized that he had turned into a cat, he first felt (     ).
(1) astonished
(2) embarrassed
(3) excited
(4) satisfied

猫になった Yuji が最初どう感じたか。
I was so surprised that I couldn't move.
とあるので,surprised の類義語 astonished を選べば正解です。

問2 When Yuji's mother spoke to him, he was annoyed because (     ).

1. he wanted to please her
2. her words disturbed him
3. his mouth was full of food
4. she interrupted his studies

A sign of frustration ... とあります。

frustration は何かしたいことを妨げられた時の嫌な感情ですから,2. her words disturbed him(彼女の言葉が彼を邪魔した)が正解です。

(参考:Macmillan Dictionaryより)
frustration: an annoyed or impatient feeling that you get when you are prevented from doing what you want

問3 The cat thought, "I don't like this guy," because Yuji (     ).
1. could not recall the taste of food he had eaten at breakfast.
2. tried to hide his efforts to study for the final exams
3. was making fun of his mother's concern for his future
4. was not showing respect for people or things around him


第5段落:スマホに夢中:absorbed in a smartphone

スマホに夢中でお母さんやパンの味 (people or things around him) に無関心 (mindlessly, expressionless) であることが読み取れます。

従って,正解は 4. was not showing respect for people or things around him です。

問4 At the end of the story, Yuji did not pick up his smartphone because he (     ).
1. decided it was time to improve his attitude
2. realized that it was not yet fully charged
3. wanted to stick to his old priorities
4. was afraid of being scolded by his mother

物語の最後で Yuji がスマホを手に取らなかったのはなぜでしょうか。

第9段落の "I don't like this guy." より,自分のことが嫌になったのがわかります。
従って,正解は 1. decided it was time to improve his attitude です。

問5 What is the theme of this story?
1. Cats have much better than humans.
2. Observing yourself can lead to self-change.
3. People using smartphones look strange.
4. Unbelievable things can happen in dreams.


従って,正解は 2. Observing yourself can lead to self-change. です。


センター試験 英語 2018年度(30年度)


問1  Jeff didn't accept the job offer because of the (8) salary.

1. cheap
2. inexpensive
3. low
4. weak

salary(給料)を修飾する形容詞は,high(高い)又は low(低い)です。

a high salary: 高給
a low salary: 低給

【正解は 3】


問2  Brenda went (9) to get something to drink.

1. at downstairs
2. downstairs
3. the downstairs
4. to downstairs

【go downstairs: 階下へ降りる】というフレーズを知っていれば正解にたどりつけますが,文法的に考えてみましょう。

一般的に,go とそれに続く品詞を考えると以下の2通りが考えられます。

1. go to 名詞
例:go to school, go to a park

2. go 副詞
例:go there, go home, go abroad

downstairs は名詞,形容詞,副詞として使用されます。

名詞の場合は the downstairs として,定冠詞の the を伴います。そうすると,選択肢の3番は名詞だとわかります。
名詞ならば,went to the downstairs としなければなりません。

選択肢の1番と4番は at や to の前置詞があります。go to downstairs を正解と考えるかもしれませんが,downstairs を名詞としてして使うには the がなければなりません。同様の理由で1番も駄目です。

選択肢はどれを選んでも,downstairs の後ろに名詞がありませんから,形容詞ではありません。

選択肢2番であれば,went downstairs となり,副詞として downstairs が使われることになります。これが正解です。


【正解は 2】

慶應大学医学部 一般 英語 解説 2018年度 2月19日

[I] 次の英文を読んで設問に答えなさい。

Study after study shows that good social relationships are the strongest, most consistent predictor there is of a happy life, indicating that they are a necessary condition for happiness. (1) This finding cuts across race, age, gender, income, and social class so overwhelmingly that all other predictors of happiness look tiny by comparison.
Yet, while most Americans claim that achieving personal happiness is a priority for them, (2) 概して他人と実際に関わる時間をますます減らしつつある. Nearly half of all meals eaten in the US are now eaten alone. (3) Teenagers and young adults these days give less priority to just "hanging out" with their friends than any generation in recent history, replacing real-world interaction with smartphones.
And this kind of observation ( ア ) not just to young people. A recent survey by Bureau of Labor Statistics ( イ ) that the average American now ( ウ ) under four minutes a day to "hosting and attending social events," a category that ( エ ) all types of parties and other organized social occasions. That's 24 hours a year, which is barely enough time to ( オ ) to a couple of birthday parties and a Thanksgiving dinner.
According to research, we should really be aiming to spend less time alone if we want to be happy. Although most of s claim to value the time we have to ourselves, we consistently indicate in surveys that we are happier when we are around other people than when we are on our own. (4) Surprisingly, this finding is not just true of people who consider themselves outgoing, but also of those who are more inward looking.


問1 下線部 (1) をThis finding の内容を明らかにして,日本語に訳しなさい。

問2 下線部 (2) を英語に訳しなさい。

問3 下線部 (3) を日本語に訳しなさい。

問4 (ア) ~ (オ) の空欄に入れるのにふさわしい動詞を選択肢から選び,正しい形に変えたものを解答欄に書きなさい。一つの動詞を複数回使ってはならない。

apply  cover  devote  follow  go  report  reveal  spend  tell  use

問5 下線部 (4) をthis finding の内容を明らかにして,日本語に訳しなさい。

問6 Do you think you spend enough time with other people? And how do you feel about the quality of that time? Would you prefer to spend more or less time socializing? Why?/Why not? Write 100 words or so in English to express your views on these questions.

This finding = good social relationships are the strongest, most consistent predictor there is of a happy life

◇ 最初の文の最も大きな構造は S V O の第3文型です。
Study after study shows [that ... a happy life]

S: study after study
V: shows
O: [that ... a happy life]

「名詞 after 名詞」が主語になっています。
一度の研究だけでなく,多くの研究が that 以下を shows(示している)という意味です。意味は複数のような印象ですが,単数として扱います。

day after day: 来る日も来る日も

that が導く名詞節の中身が this finding です。
that 自体が従節ですが,更に2つの節に分かれています。

◇ that 節の中の主節: good social relationships are the strongest, most consistent predictor

S': good social relationships: 良好な社会的関係
V': are
C': the strongest, most consistent predictor: 最も強く,最も一貫した予測因子

predictor は難しい単語ですが,predict の名詞形であることから意味を推測しましょう。predict (予測する)は高校重要語ですから,知っているべき単語です。ここでは「予測因子」と訳しましたが,試験本番でこの訳語が出てこなくても大丈夫です。「予測するもの」でもよいですし,「予測要素」などとしてもよいでしょう。ここは工夫と国語力が必要ですね。

以下は Longman の定義です。

・predict: to say that something will happen, before it happens(何かが起こることを,起こる前に言うこと)

・predictor: something that shows what will happen in the future(未来に何が起こるかを示すもの)

・collect(集める)⇒ collector(集めるもの)
・act(行動する)⇒ actor(行動するもの)
・predict(予測する)⇒ predictor(予測するもの)

◇ that 節の中の従節
there is of a happy life
これは that が省略された関係代名詞節(形容詞節)と考えることができます。修飾されるのは predictor です。

predictor ← (that) there is a happy life

predictor that there is of a happy life: 存在する幸せな生活の予測因子

There is a predictor of a happy life.

文末の indicating that they are a necessary condition for happiness(良好な社会的関係が幸せの必要条件であることを示している)は付帯状況を表す分詞構文(副詞句)です。
意味上の主語は Study after study で,they は good social relationships を受けています。


S: This finding
V: cuts across(句動詞として扱います。)
O: race, age, gender, income, and social class
M: so overwhelmingly that ... by comparison

cut across: to affect two or more different groups (Macmillan)

race, age, gender, income, and social class

so overwhelmingly that S V: とても圧倒的なので that 以下(so ~ that 構文)

that 以下は結果を表す副詞節
S': all other predictors of happiness(他の全ての幸福の予測因子)
V': look(~に見える)
C': tiny(ごく小さい)
M': by comparison(比較すると)

This finding cuts across race, age, gender, income, and social class so overwhelmingly that all other predictors of happiness look tiny by comparison.